Abstract


TURKS AND MONGOLS IN RUSSIAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

The aim of this study is to determine the image of the Turks in the sixth grade Russian History textbooks.  The sixth grade Russian History and history textbooks are used in the study.  This study based on the easily accessible sampling strategy, the following books were examined in the study: Danilov & others (2009) History of Russia, Danilov & Kosulina (2012) History of Russia, Andreyev & Födorov (2016) History of Russia  The study is based on the method of document analysis.  The textbooks on Russian history are subjected to content analysis.  According to the results of the research, Turkish communities in the north of the Black Sea and Huns are described as warrior, while The Khazars and Bulgarians are represented by their commercial activities, cities and religious tolerations. However, the Mongols and the Golden Horde stand out with their negative image and combativeness.  The history textbooks state that the Mongols adopt the religion of Islam by mingling with the Turks.  Therefore, Mongolian history is described within Turkish history.  According to the textbooks, the cities are destroyed, the artisans are killed, and the Russian culture collapse as a result of the Mongol invasion.  The Russians describe the period they live under the rule of the Golden Horde as the years of captivity.  Batu Khan is the historical figure who is remembered with the most negative images.  According to the textbooks, people are slaughtered, the churches are burned, and the libraries are set on fire with the expeditions of Batu Khan.  Whereas the Russians describe the expeditions to their own lands in ill part, they describe their own expeditions and occupations to Turkish lands as a normal historical process. The discourses in Russian textbooks are generally nationalistic and religious. Russia undertakes the mission of the protector of Orthodox Christians with the ideal of being third Rome.  While the relations with the Turks are generally conveyed adversely, the political and cultural heritage, Russia receives from Golden Horde, is ignored.



Keywords

Russian history textbooks, Turkish Image, History education


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