In this study, it was investigated whether the science test items in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 exam included differential item functioning (DIF) in terms of culture and language. DIF analyses were performed using the Mantel Haenszel (MH) method in the RStudio program. In the research, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Morocco and Egypt countries were studied. For the countries in the study group, data analysis of 16 multiple-choice items of the science achievement test in the 8th grade 10th booklet of TIMSS 2015 was carried out. In linguistic and cultural comparisons of countries, the fact that they are in the same and different success groups has been taken into account. As a result, it was observed that the order of achievement was not effective in the number of items with DIF. It was concluded that the number of items with moderate and high level DIF was the highest among countries with different cultures and speaking different languages. It was observed that the number of items with DIF was low among the countries speaking the same language and in different cultures. It was concluded that the differentiation of the spoken language was a more effective variable in determining the item with DIF. Therefore, based on the findings of the research, it is suggested that the translation and adaptation processes should be carried out meticulously in international tests such as TIMSS and PISA. Future DIF examinations in terms of culture and language can be carried out by selecting different countries.
Differential item functioning, Mantel Haenszel, science achievement, TIMSS, language and culture.